Neuromodulation is surgery to help control seizures–not necessarily to stop them but to control them. The one that’s been around the longest is called the vagal nerve stimulator. This is a pacemaker device that’s implanted under the skin with a wire running underneath the skin to the neck to a nerve called the vagus nerve. This pacemaker sends an impulse to the vagus nerve and then, through a black-box mechanism, sends a signal up into the brain that helps control seizures. This therapy results with an average 50% reduction in seizure frequency. Another device called a neuropace device is actually implanted in the skull. An electrode is put into the place in the brain where the seizure is originating. The electrode can detect the onset of a seizure and zap the brain to prevent the seizure from occurring. With a neuropace device, the doctor has to be sure exactly which part of the brain the seizure is coming from before it can be implanted.